Abduction: refer to the motion of a structure away from the midline
Adduction: refers to a motion that pulls a structure or part toward the midline of the body, or towards the midline of a limb
Dorsiflexion: motion at the ankle joint where the angle between the dorsal surface of the foot and the tibia decrease
Extension: the opposite of flexion, describing a straightening movement that increases the angle between two bones.
Flexion:describes a bending movement that decreases the angle between two bones.
Plantarflexion: motion at the ankle joint where the angle between the dorsal surface of the foot and the tibia increase
Rotation: the motion around the longitudinal axis, for example, internal or external rotation
Distal: away from a referenced point on the body
Proximal:closer to a referenced point on the body
Pelvic Drop: the moment during the stance phase, the eccentric motion of the hip abductor muscles on the stance leg allow the pelvis to drop inferior on the opposite side
Planes of Motion and Axes
Frontal/Coronal plane (Anteroposterior Axis):Divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
Sagittal/Median plane (Mediolateral axis): dividing the body into right and left parts
Transverse plane (Longitudinal axis): divides the body into superior and inferior parts.